An enzyme cleaves a specific GT dinucleotide sequence from each 3PRIME vDNA terminus. What bond is cleaved by the enzyme during this reaction of integration? A: P-CB: P-PC: P-HD: P-O


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D: P-O; the enzyme cleaves the dinucleotide from the 3" end of viral DNA. This involves the cleavage of a P-O bond in the DNA backbone
Integrase is a viral enzyme that mediates the integration of viral DNA into the host chromosome and is a 288-residue protein. An inactive tetramer of IN is expected to have approximately what molecular weight? A: 16 kDaB: 32 kDaC: 64kDaD: 128 kDa
D: 128 kDa The enzyme is composed of 288 amino acids, which have a molecular weight of about 32 kDa (the avg molecular weight of an AA is about 110 Da; 288 x 110 --> 3200 Da or 32 kDa). Thus, a tetramer will have a molecular weight of about 128 kDa (32 x 4 = 128 kDa)
What are the steps for the renin-angiotensin system in order to increase blood pressure/fluid volume?
1. Decreased BP causes JUXTAGLOMERULAR CELLS of the kidne to secrete RENIN 2. Renin cleaves an inactive plasma protein, ANGIOTENSINOGEN , to its active form, ANGIOTENSIN I 3. Angiotensin I is then converted to angiotensin II by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in the LUNGS 4. Angiotensin II does two things: -Stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX to secrete aldosterone; aldosterone acts on kidneys to stimulate reabsorption of salt (NaCl) and water -Acts directly on blood vessels, stimulating vasoconstriction (narrowing) Once BP is restored, there is a decreased drive to release renin, negative feedback
Which event is directly mediated by a ligand-gated ion channel? A: Release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of a muscle fiber to initiate muscle contraction B: Influx of Na+ across the axon membrane of a somatic neuron during action potential propagation C : Influx of Na+ across the motor end plate resulting in the depolarization of the muscle fiber membrane D: Re-entry of Ca2+ back into the SR of a muscle fiber to end muscle contraction
C : Influx of Na+ across the motor end plate resulting in the depolarization of the muscle fiber membrane
they bind the enzyme and the ES-complex with the SAME AFFINITY ; Vmax is reduced but Km is unchanged
An enzyme is more effectively inhibited by uncompetitive inhibitors when:I: the substrate concentration is decreasedII: the substrate concentration is increasedIII: the inhibitor concentration is increased
II & III ONLY;- Uncompetitive inhibitors bind their target enzymes only when the substrate is first bound to the enzyme-since at higher , the ES-complex are more abundant, the uncompetitive inhibitor will work most effectively when the substrate concentration is highest -additionally, an increase in the inhibitor concentration results in increased enzyme binding and inhibition
Which methods separate proteins based on their charge? I: SDS-PAGEII: Isoelectric focusing III: Ion-exchange chromatography IV: Affinity chromatography
II & III onlySDS-PAGE separates based on massAffinity chromatography separates based on their interactions with specific ligands
How many molecules of reduced electron carrier are generated during conversion of alpha-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate in the TCA?A: 1B: 2C: 3D: 4
Which enzyme is used both in gluconeogenesis & glycogenolysis? A: phosphoglucomutaseB: glucose-6-phosphatase C: hexokinase D: glucokinase
Which of the following is NOT a gluconeogenic precursor ?A: lactateB: glycerolC: oxaloacetate D: phosphogluconate
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Fundamentals of Biochemistry: Life at the Molecular Level5th EditionCharlotte W. Pratt, Donald Voet, Judith G. Voet
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