My critical to you was of the 16th of Dec. Due to the fact that which I have received her of Nov. 25. And Dec. 4. Which afforded me, together your letters always do, a act on problem public, individual and oeconomical. Ns am impatient to find out your sentiments top top the so late troubles in the east states. So much as I have yet seen, they execute not show up to threaten major consequences. Those states have actually suffered through the stoppage of the networks of their commerce, which have not yet found other issues. This should render money scarce, and make the human being uneasy. This uneasiness has developed acts certain unjustifiable: yet I hope they will provoke no severities from their governments. A consciousness of those in strength that their management of the public affairs has actually been honest, may perhaps develop too good a level of indignation: and those personalities wherein are afraid predominates end hope may apprehend too much from this instances the irregularity. They might conclude as well hastily that nature has created man insusceptible of any other government however that the force, a conclusion not started in truth, no one experience. Cultures exist under three forms sufficiently distinguishable. 1. Without government, as among our Indians. 2. Under governments wherein the will of every one has a just influence, as is the case in England in a slight degree, and in our says in a good one. 3. Under federal governments of force: as is the situation in all other monarchies and in many of the various other republics. To have actually an idea the the curse of existence under this last, they should be seen. The is a government of wolves end sheep. It is a problem, no clear in my mind, that the 1st. Problem is no the best. Yet I think it to it is in inconsistent v any good degree that population. The 2nd state has a good deal of great in it. The massive of mankind under the enjoys a precious level of liberty and also happiness. It has it’s malice too: the primary of i beg your pardon is the disturbance to which the is subject. However weigh this versus the oppressions the monarchy, and it i do not care nothing. Malo periculosam, libertatem quam quietam servitutem. Also this angry is fertile of good. It stays clear of the degeneracy that government, and also nourishes a general attention to the general public affairs. I hold it the a tiny rebellion now and then is a great thing, and also as necessary in the political people as storms in the physical. Unsuccesful rebellions without doubt generally create the incroachments top top the civil liberties of the human being which have produced them. An monitoring of this truth should render moral republican governors for this reason mild in their punishment the rebellions, as not to discourage them as well much. The is a medecine crucial for the sound health and wellness of government. If these transactions provide me no uneasiness, i feel an extremely differently at one more peice that intelligence, to wit, the possibility that the navigating of the Missisipi might be exit to Spain. I never had any type of interest from the west of the Alleghaney; and I never will have any. However I have actually had good opportunities of discovering the personality of the world who inhabit the country. And I will endeavor to say that the act which abandons the navigating of the Missisipi is an act of separation in between the Eastern and Western country. It is a relinquishment of five parts out of eight the the are of the united States, an abandonment the the fairest topic for the paiment of ours public debts, and the chaining those debts on our very own necks in perpetuum. I have actually the utmost trust in the honest intentions that those that concur in this measure; but I lament their want of acquaintance with the character and physical advantages of the human being who, best or wrong, will suppose their interests sacrificed ~ above this occasion to the contrary interests of that component of the confederacy in possession of present power. If they declare themselves a different people, we are incapable that a solitary effort to retain them. Our citizens have the right to never be induced, either together militia or together souldiers, to walk there to reduced the throats that their own brothers and sons, or rather<1> come be us the subjects instead of the perpetrators of the parricide. Nor would certainly that country quit the price of being retained versus the will of the inhabitants, might it be done. But it cannot be done. They room able currently to rescue the navigating of the Missisipi out of the hand of Spain, and to add new Orleans to their own territory. They will be join by the occupants of Louisiana. This will lug on a war in between them and Spain; and also that will create the concern with us whether it will certainly not be worth our when to come to be parties with them in the war, in order to reunite them v us, and thus exactly our error? and also were i to allow my forebodings to walk one step futher, I have to predict that the residents of the U.S. Would force their rulers to take it the affirmative of the question. Ns wish I might be mistake in all these opinions.

We have actually for part time intended that the Chevalier de la Luzerne would attain a promo in the diplomatic line, by being appointed to some of the courts where this nation keeps one Ambassador. Yet none that the vacancies ensuing which had actually been counted on, ns think the current disposition is to need his return to his terminal in America. He told me himself lately, that he must return in the spring. I have actually never pressed this issue on the court, tho’ ns knew the to it is in desireable and also desired on our part: because if the obsession on him to return had actually been the job-related of Congress, the would have actually returned in such ill temper v them regarding disappoint lock in the good they meant from it. He would certainly for ever before have set at your door his failure of promotion. Ns did not push it for an additional reason, which is that ns have good reason to beleive that the character of the count de Moutier, who would go were the Chevalier to be otherwise noted for, would offer the most perfect satisfaction in America.—As girlfriend are currently returned into Congress that will end up being of prestige that you should type a just estimate of details public characters; on which as such I will give you such notes as my knowlege of them has actually furnished me with. You will certainly compare them v the materials you room otherwise own of, and decide on a check out of the whole. You know the opinion i formerly<2> entertained of my girlfriend Mr. Adams. Yourself and also the branch were the very first who shook the opinion. I afterwards saw proofs which judge him of a degree of vanity, and also of a remote to it, of i m sorry no germ had showed up in Congress. A 7-months’ intimacy through him here and as numerous weeks in London have provided me methods of studying him closely. He is vain, irritable and also a poor calculator that the force and also probable result of the motives which govern men. This is all the ill which deserve to possibly be said of him. That is as disinterested as the gift which made him: he is extensive in his views: and accurate in his judgment other than where knowledge of the civilization is vital to kind a judgment. That is therefore amiable, that i pronounce you will certainly love the if ever you end up being acquainted with him. He would be, together he was, a good man in Congress.<3> Mr. Carmichael is i think very small known in America. I never saw him and also while I was in Congress I developed rather a disadvantageous idea of him. His letters, got then, shewed him vain and more attentive come ceremony and also etiquette 보다 we suppose men of sense must be. I have now a constant correspondence v him, and also find the a small hypocondriac and also discontented. He possesses very an excellent understanding tho’ no of the very first order. I have had good opportunities of searching right into his character and have availed myself that it. Countless persons of various nations comes from Madrid come Paris every speak that him together in high esteem and I think it details that that has much more of the count de Florid. B’s friendship than any diplomatic character at that court. As lengthy as this minister is in office Carmichael have the right to do much more than any type of other person who could be sent out there. Friend will check out Franks and doubtless he will be asking part appointment. I wish there might be any one for which that is fit. The is light, indiscreet, ive,<4> honest, affectionate. Tho’ Bingham is no in diplomatic office yet as he desire to be so i will mention such circumstances of him as you can otherwise be deceived in. He will certainly make you think he was on the most intimate footing through the very first characters in Europe and also versed in the tricks of every cabinet. No a native of this is true. He had actually a rage for gift presented to great men and had no modesty in the methods by which he could effect it. If the obtained access afterwards, it was with such as that were prone of impression native the beauty of his wife. Ns must other than the Marquis de Bouilli<5> who had actually been an old acquaintance. The Marquis de Lafayette is a most an useful auxiliary come me. His zeal is unbounded, and also his we<6> with those in power great. His education having been merely military, business was an unknown feild to him. Yet his an excellent sense allowing him to recognize perfectly whatever is explained to him, his company has been an extremely efficacious. He has a great deal that sound genius, is fine remarked by the king and also rising in popularity. He has actually nothing versus him however the uncertainty of republican principles. Ns think that will someday be the the ministry. His foible is a canine appetite for popularity and also fame. However he will get above this. The counting de Vergennes is ill. The possibility of his recovery provides it attention for united state to refer a doubt but he is in danger. He is a an excellent Minister in european affairs however has really imperfect concepts of ours no trust in them. His devotion come the values of pure despotism render that unaffectionate come our governments yet his fear of England renders him value united state as a do weight. That is cool, reserved in politics conversation, totally free and familiar on various other subjects, and a an extremely attentive, aggreeable person to do business with. The is impossible to have a clearer, much better organised head however age has chilled his heart. Nothing must be spared on our component to attach this nation to us. The is the only one on i beg your pardon we can rely for assistance under every event. It’s citizens love us much more I think 보다 they do any type of other country on earth. This is very much the result of the great dispositions with which the French officers returned. In a previous letter I discussed to you the dislocation of mine wrist. I deserve to make not the least use of it, except for the single article that writing, tho’ it is walk on five months since the accident happened. I have an excellent anxieties lest I have to never recover any type of considerable use of it. I shall, through the advice of mine Surgeons, collection out in a fortnight because that the waters that Aix in Provence. I chose these the end of numerous they proposed to me, since if castle fail to it is in effectual, my journey will not it is in useless altogether. That will give me an chance of assessing the canal the Languedoc and of gaining knowlege of that species of navigating which might be helpful hereafter: but an ext immediately the will permit me to take the tour of the ports came to in business with us, to examine on the spot the defects that the late regulations respecting our commerce, to discover the additional improvements which may be do on it, and, on my return, to get this company finished. Ns shall be absent between two and also three months, unless any thing wake up to recall me below sooner, i beg your pardon may constantly be effected in ten days, in whatever component of my course I might be. In speak of characters I omitted those the Reyneval and also Henin, the 2 eyes that M. De Vergennes. The previous is the most crucial character because possessing the many of the trust of the Count, that is rather shrewd than wise. His see of things being neither an excellent nor liberal that governs himself by values which he has actually learnt through rote and is fit just for the details of execution. His heart is prone of little passions but not of good ones. He is brothers in legislation to M. Gerard from who he obtained disadvantageous impressions of us which cannot be effaced. He has actually much duplicity. Henin is a theorist sincere, friendly, liberal, learned, lovely by every body, the various other by nobody. I think that a an excellent misfortune that the United says are in the room of the former. Together particulars of this kind may be advantageous to friend in your present situation, I may hereafter continue the chapter. I understand it for sure lodged in your discretion.

Feb. 5.

Since writing thus far Franks is reverted from England. I discover that Mr. Adams desire to be recalled and that Smith have to be appointed charge des affairs there. The is not for me to decide whether any type of diplomatic character must be retained at a court which keeps none with us. You have the right to judge that Smith’s capability by his letters. They space not the the first order however they space good. For his honesty the is favor our girlfriend Monroe. Rotate his heart wrong side outwards and there is not a speck on it. He has one foible, an too much inflammability the temper, yet he feel it once it comes on, and also has resolution enough to suppress it, and to remain silent it spins it passes over.

I send you by Colo. Franks her pocket telescope, wade stick, and chemical box. The 2 former could not be an unified together. The latter can not be had in the kind you ad to. Having actually a great desire to have actually a portable copy machine, and being solve from some experiments that the principle of the large machine could be used in a little one, i planned one as soon as in England and had that made. That answers perfectly. I have actually since set a workman to making them here, and also they room in such demand that he has actually his hands full. Gift assured that you will certainly be pleased to have one, when you shall have tried that convenience, i send you one by Colo. Franks. The an equipment costs 96 livres, the appendages 24. Livres, and also I send you paper and ink for 12 livres, in every 132 livres. There is a printed file of directions: however you need to expect to make countless essays before you success perfectly. A soft brush, choose a shaving brush, is more convenient 보다 the sponge. Friend can gain as much ink and file as you please from London.

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The file costs a guinea a ream.