I am writing a collection of posts to guide world through analysis Paulo Freire’s book Pedagogy of the Oppressed, a book which has been exceptionally influential in my life and which can aid readers become much more aware the the way in i m sorry oppression occurs in society. It can also help us identify our own oppression or become an ally and also co-laborer through those who space oppressed.

You are watching: Pedagogy of the oppressed chapter 3 summary

You have the right to read the very first two articles in this collection here and here.

You can also read an online copy of Pedagogy the the Oppressed here.

In this post, I desire to testimonial some principles in thing 2, and then I will preview thing 3, and offer some reading overview points because that this chapter.

Reviewing thing Two

Chapter two in Pedagogy of the Oppressed is ostensibly around education and also educators. Yet please recognize that also if you space not an educator in an yes, really classroom of some sort, this thing is still because that you.


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Why? Well, because all of us space educated or we are educators in some way.

Here is what i mean. Adults find themselves in actual classrooms less and also less as they age, however they are still being taught. Any kind of time friend receive details from some source telling you, implicitly or explicitly, what to do, you room being taught. Because that example, as soon as a source tells you what to do, it communicates to you what you should think, just how you must act, and also the values you have to possess. This is the procedure of education. So, whenever you hear to or clock advertisers, politicians, government figures, religious leaders, podcasters, authors, or movies, you room being educated.

In addition, at any time you connect with anyone—child or adult—you are educating lock in some way. That is because all our interactions v other people communicate come them, either clearly or implicitly, what us think of them and human beings in general. We also communicate other ideas around their worth; their company (i.e. Their capacity to carry out things in the world); their purpose; that they space in partnership to us; and also their location in the world, just to surname a few.

So, when chapter two in Pedagogy that the Oppressed focuses specifically on education and learning in the classroom, the ideas and crucial ideas that the chapter pertain to every one of us and also the relationships we find ourselves in because that our whole life.


What can We discover from chapter Two?

Chapter 2 builds ~ above the themes of thing one (again, you deserve to read more about chapter one here) by explaining exactly how the great (or any educative relationship) i do not care a an are for one of two people dehumanization or humanization.

Remember the Freire tells united state in thing one the humanization is our vocation. As soon as we go after humanization, us honor ours capacities as people to step back from the world; come reflect ~ above it; come act top top the troubles we see in the world; and to transform the people to support greater humanization because that everyone. Freire refers to these collective abilities together praxis, which us will view more completely in thing three.

A totally humanized human being supports praxis and the growing of all person capacities—our capacities choose love, compassion, kindness, wisdom, creativity, reasoning, communication, caretaking, problem-solving, and our capacity to change the world, to name just a few.

Thus, when education is dehumanizing, the crushes people’s ability to interact in praxis or to go after a world that supports human being flourishing.

How does this happen? In thing two, Freire tells united state that one of the most usual ways this happens is v the system of banking education. when educators practice banking education, they carry out not encourage your students to engage in praxis. Nor execute they invite their students to aid co-create a an ext humanized human being with them.

Rather, educators who practice banking education, even if it is they realize it or not, treat their students together receptacles into which castle (the educators) to water the fact or the appropriate view of things. So, fairly than permitting their students to watch the civilization themselves; notice problems in it; and pose solutions, banking educators tell students what the world is like; what its difficulties are; and also how to solve them.


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Understanding bank Education an ext Clearly

An instance from Paulo Freire’s life illustrates the process of banking education well. The Brazil that Freire lived in was an extremely hierarchical. The elite in Brazilian society were the descendants of Portuguese colonialists who had actually invaded Brazil, enslaved countless of the indigenous people there, and used their slave labor come enrich themselves and also their mother country Portugal.

And even after enslavement was technically abolished, most of the power and also wealth in Brazil to be owned through a few powerful families, typically the descendants of Portuguese colonialists, and only the upstream in Brazil could vote. (You deserve to read an ext about this here.) The result of this was that even though the indigenous Brazilians were technically free, lock were, in practice, slaves.

The wealth and also resources in Brazil to be owned by a small group of an effective elites. And this to be such a problem that most aboriginal Brazilians were barely able to survive. Many of them, due to the fact that they had no other options, functioned grueling tasks on coffee ranches owned by the elite Brazilians, right eking out menial life that preserved them and their family at a continual level the near-starvation and also impoverishment. Because of this harsh existence, many Brazilian farmers and their family members were never able to attend college or come learn how to read. This further exacerbated their difficulties in life because literacy was a necessity for voting in Brazil.


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Thus, the upstream in Brazil organized society in such a means that the world in power stayed in power, and also the impoverished Brazilians (which was much of Brazil), had very little, if any, power to adjust conditions. One of the ways that the elite kept their strength in Brazil is that education and learning was only noted primarily because that the youngsters of the elite. And also this educational system consistently connected that the Brazilian culture was the way it was since the poor of Brazil to be lazy, uneducated, stupid, had poor character, etc. You can read more about this here and in the development to Pedagogy the the Oppressed here. Thus, the education system in Brazil throughout Paulo Freire’s life is a prime instance of bank education.

It is tempting come think that points surely could not have actually been this poor in Brazil. Yet the severity of the oppressive banking education case becomes noticeable when we learn that as soon as Paulo Freire began a extremely successful routine teaching the Brazilian farmers how to check out so that they might vote and improve their living conditions, the Brazilian government was so intimidated that the exiled Freire native Brazil.

Freire had committed no crime other than educating bad Brazilians and also teaching them that they to be people, too, and also that they could have a much better life.<1> You deserve to read more about this here.

This is what banking educators do. They construct a see of the world, even if it is consciously or unconsciously, the benefits them in some way, and also then they demand that other human being accept this same view that the world. And, the course, banking educators don’t constantly realize they room doing this, although occasionally they do. Banking educators regularly truly think that their watch of the people is the correct one or most moral one or most Christian one or whatever.

However, they make this decision there is no consulting various other people, particularly other world who are an extremely different from them. Because that example, in the situation of Freire’s Brazil, the Brazilian elite occurred a check out of the human being that enriched and also empowered them. Yet they did no consult the poor, native Brazilians come see exactly how this check out of the world influenced them.


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If they had actually done so, v a loving, humble, and courageous will to listen, they would certainly have conveniently realized that their check out of the world and also the social structure it created, to be unjust, inhumane, and oppressive. Listening to the native Brazilians would have required them to give up part or a most their power and also to adjust in significant ways. Thus, they didn’t listen, and thus lock exiled Freire for to teach the Brazilian farmers to develop their own view the the word.

This part May do You Uncomfortable

I have negative news for you that might make you uncomfortable, however please remain with me. That is almost particular that you have both proficient banking education and learning in some way, or you have inadvertently practiced banking education.

If you to be educated in a institution that taught one check out of things—for example, the white view–you skilled banking education.

If your teachers or college did not allow you to concern or explore alternating viewpoints, you experienced banking education.

(And by the way, I have actually been a teacher my entire professional life, and I can look back on my career and remember moments as soon as I unwittingly exercised banking education, and moments I exercised humanizing education.)

In addition, if you think that your view of the people is the appropriate view the the world and that other civilization need to obtain with your routine to resolve the people problems, you likely practice banking education and learning in some form or another.

And if you are unwilling to listen to and also talk with human being with different views than you—like different spiritual or politics or financial views—and consider their views, you are more than likely practicing banking education in part way.

The negative news is that you room probably likewise contributing come dehumanization and also oppression in some way.

That good news is the you can stop practicing banking education, and you deserve to stop contributing to dehumanization and also oppression. Friend can additionally become aware when you space being dehumanized and also oppressed with banking education and learning in any type of form.


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Freire provides us a an excellent idea in thing three exactly how to execute this, so ns will currently proceed come the reading guide for chapter three:

Chapter Three

My note: humans are creatures of dialogue. We speak to ourselves and to each other about the world.The most an easy element of dialogue is the word.There are true words and also false words. A true word is a word that contains both reflection and also action.My Note: We have the right to understand why Freire says that a true word has both reflection and activity if we consider that every time we shot authentically to surname (comprehend) other in our environment, it involves some kind of matching action.

For instance, if we name someone a friend, this requires on our part act of friendliness and hospitality. If us name something a threat, it entails actions of defensiveness and wariness, possibly even fear, on our part.

On the other hand, once we name something inauthentically, because that instance, we usage our words to manipulate, it does not entail action. For instance, us could contact someone a girlfriend to manipulate him, yet we nothing truly average that the human being is our friend. Accordingly, we might fail to act in a reasonable method towards them and also treat them like lackeys or neglect them as soon as they no longer serve ours purpose. And also if we contact someone a threat, not due to the fact that we median it, yet rather the end of momentary petulance or in an attempt to acquire on the an excellent side of an additional group of people, we would most likely not act repetitively either (or also at all)

The suggest is that a true word requires action. A false human being leads to contradictory or lack of action.

The function of the true word—grounded in both reflection and action—is to readjust the world.What is unique about humans is the they name the world, and also their naming, when it is done truly, entails praxis—reflection and also action.Humans can not be silent about the world.Naming the civilization is no the appropriate of one individual; that is the right of everyone.Therefore, because naming is the right of everyone, dialogue is vital part of human being existence.Dialogue is an existential necessity.We cannot dialogue through others if we execute not allow them come speak your word and name the world.To deny civilization the best to name the human being is dehumanizing and an act of aggression. (My Note: Freire is not arguing that every praxis is humanizing. Clearly, there are human being who have actually dehumanizing praxis–namely, those who communicate in praxis aimed in ~ silencing entire groups that people because to permit them come speak would typical to offer up your power and control.)Those who have actually been denied their ability to surname the people in dialogue with others have to take back this right.If an circumstances of conversation is merely around one human trying come deposit concepts in the various other person’s head, or if the circumstances of dialogue is merely around people spend ideas, climate it is not authentic dialogue.The goal of dialogue is the “conquest” the the civilization through world dialoguing with each other in bespeak to transform the civilization for better humanization.Thus, true dialogue can only happen in the context of love: love for the world and for every other.Dialogue should be loving, and authentic dialogue is love itself.The the opposite of love is domination.Love, i m sorry is the structure of dialogue, is deep committed come others and also their liberation because we can not speak a true word alone.So, we should be committed to liberating the oppressed, who have been refuse their ideal to speak the word, so that they have the right to dialogue through us around the world. This is the only method we can completely humanize the world.Liberating love need to be both brave and humble.I can not dialogue, and also I cannot love, if I take into consideration myself to it is in a part of the folks who “get it”, and also this i do not care my key identity.If I take into consideration myself in this way, i will lack humility, and also I will certainly be can not to important listen, love, dialogue, and also transform the people with others.Dialogue also requires confidence in humankind.Courageous civilization know the power have the right to be offered to dehumanization but that a true understanding of power have the right to lead to the minute of rebirth and also liberation. Faith in mankind is base in this.When conversation is base in love, humility, and faith in humanity, which every true conversation is, it creates an atmosphere of to trust in which adjust can occur.False love, false faith, and false humility cannot produce trust.Trust is grounded in yes, really praxis.Authentic dialogue can also not exist there is no hope, i beg your pardon continually engages in struggle.True dialogue additionally cannot exist without critical thinking which recognizes, contra come naïve thinking, that fact is a process that is always created by our thought and actions.The naïve thinker normalizes today and views it as an inevitable, unchangeable given, fairly than the procedure of human intervention in the civilization through thought and also action.Naïve thinking fails to realize that this day is just a minute in time in the procedure of becoming and also that the score is come become an ext human.Critical thinking have the right to only occur in the context of dialogue—not in a paper definition in i m sorry one person, choose an educator, imposes his or her see on the students.True education can just exist in the paper definition of dialogue.Education starts the moment an education asks it s her what she will dialogue v her students about.A true educator need to educate follow to what the students desire to know, not around what he or she think is ideal for the students.Authentic education is lugged out by an educator through her students.The important humanizing and also liberating educator will placed herself in a position to be reinvented with her students.The goal of the education is always to fight together with human being to recoup their stolen humanity.The beginning point that education and liberation must constantly be the really concrete instance of the people and also their lived experience.The people’s or student’s thematic universe must generate the contents of education.A object universe is composed of a the words, ideas, concepts, and also issues most necessary to a details people.Human beings have the right to have subject universes because they space historical. They room able to separate themselves from their existence, objectify it, notification the difficulties in it, and work to conquer these problems. The troubles they notification and pertains to they have over their existence at each allude in time lead to generative themes and also their object universe.Animals, ~ above the other hand, perform not have generative themes or subject universes, because they room ahistorical. They have actually no past, present, and future. Lock only have actually the instant now they space in, and also they cannot gain any kind of objectivity over and versus the present moment.Animals space submerged in their world and also cannot gain an target or conscious view that it.Because animals are submerged in their world, they can not “take ~ above life” or transform their world, however humans can.The people does not challenge animals as a problem; it just stimulates lock in some way—like to eat, to rest, to fight, come flee, come procreate.Because human beings are conscious, they have the right to become mindful of the boundaries on their freedom, Freire calls lock limit-situations, i m sorry exist in the existing world, and they have the right to reflect upon just how they could change those limit-situations v limit-acts in order to rise their freedom.Animals carry out not awareness limit-situations or limit-acts.A being can only have a people when the can produce items that are not immediately a part of its physical body. This non-body, non-physical creations permit a gift to check out itself and also its liberty in the world, and also that is once it becomes aware of the world and its separation indigenous it, quite than gift submerged in the world.Only being mindful of the civilization are historical and have praxis.The people of human beings is significant by dates which contain details hopes, dreams, and also aspirations thrust by humans engaging in limit-acts in stimulate to overcome their limit-situations.The vital themes in an date constitute the generative themes the a person (or people’s) universe, and also generative themes always exist in context v their opposite.When the contradictions in a thematic universe become apparent, it is typical for people to take different sides in the contradictions and also to become caught up in a struggle against one another.Often the contradictory themes come to be mythologized and frozen, and people make the themes the focus, rather than realizing the freedom and also humanization is the actual focus.The thematic cosmos of any type of given person or team of world can contain numerous concentric circles, each circle comprise themes that space either more universal themes or themes certain to that human or team of people.When civilization have a submerged and dominated conscience, they carry out not know the interconnectedness of every the different themes in your universe.In addition, they might experience their domination as epiphenomena in their universe, quite than as among the limit-situations they can overcome with limit-acts.Educators can assist people become much more conscious of their world and the generative themes in that by help them think critically about their thematic universe and the contradictions in it. Freire phone call this educative procedure conscientizacao, or consciousness-raising. Educators can do this by beginning with people’s concrete situation and also noting the contradiction in it and then, when students are completely aware of these contradiction, relating them earlier to the thematic world as a whole.It is essential to keep in mind that the themes in a universe are intimately linked to people. Lock aren’t things in themselves divorced native people. Castle exist due to the fact that of and in people.In addition, civilization exist because they uncover themselves in a world and also universe—in a situation—which they both create and are created by.

The reading overview notes over go v pgs. 109 the the book, which is not rather to the end of thing three. The remainder of the chapter is Paulo Freire discussing how he operated as a liberatory educator with the oppressed in Brazil.

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Reflection Questions:

In what means do you connect in authentic praxis and dialogue the means Freire has described it?In what means do you encourage rather to execute the same?In what methods do you discourage your very own authentic praxis and also dialogue?In what methods do friend discourage various other people’s authentic praxis and also dialogue?What are the limit-situations friend perceive in your civilization right now? What are some of the limit-acts you could take to change the human being for better humanization?With whom do you should dialogue around these limit-situations so that you deserve to make certain you are engaging in praxis that is humanizing because that everyone?Freire mentions several an essential virtues in thing three: love, humility, belief in humanity, hope, vital thinking. I m sorry of these virtues space you already practicing fine in her life? i m sorry of these virtues perform you must cultivate an ext of in your very own life?


<1> In case you desire to much better understand how Freire provides his technique in actual education settings, you can read much more about exactly how Freire provided his ideas to education illiterate Brazilian farmers in his publication Education for crucial Consciousness, an online copy that which girlfriend can uncover here. You have the right to read his specific lessons in the Appendix.